Roti dan Roti Tak-Beragi

Elemen Perjamuan Masa Lalu yang Masih Berlaku hingga Kini

  • Rasid Rachman theology
Keywords: Roti, roti tak-beragi, artos, lehem, azumos, matzah, hari raya Paska, Hari raya Roti Tak-beragi

Abstract

ABSTRAK: Ada narasi di dalam kata. Narasi menyampaikan pandangan hidup. Pandangan hidup melukiskan teologi masyarakat melalui keseharian. Salah satu keseharian manusia adalah makan. Makan dapat merupakan kebutuhan hidup, namun makan juga dapat merupakan ritus perjamuan. Salah satu elemen makan adalah roti. Alkitab mengisahkan dua jenis roti, yaitu roti dan roti tak-beragi. Hal ini mendorong saya untuk menelusuri pandangan Alkitab akan roti dan roti-tak-beragi. Penggunaan roti atau roti tak-beragi menarasikan keseharian dan ritual masyarakat Israel kuno dan kekristenan sekitar Mediterania. Alkitab menyimpan narasi itu untuk kita. Saya coba menelusuri kata dan praktik penggunaan roti atau roti tak-beragi dalam perjamuan-perjamuan umat Yahudi, baik Perjanjian Lama maupun Perjanjian Baru, dan kekristenan awal. Muara dari tulisan ini adalah elemen perjamuan yang sepantasnya bagi gereja masa kini: apakah roti atau apakah roti tak-beragi. Sekalipun warisan mengarahkan penggunaan elemen perjamuan, namun keterbukaan dan pengembangan atas elemen warisan adalah seharusnya sikap gereja dalam upaya kontekstualisasi.

 ABSTRACT: There is a narrative in the word. The narrative tells the way of life. The way of life draws the theology of society in daily life. One of the people daily life is a meal. A meal is not only the need of life but also the social rite. One element of the meal is bread. The Bible tells about two kinds of bread, namely: the bread and the unleavened bread. Those two kinds of bread motivated me to find out how the Bible distinguishes both the meaning and practice of those bread. The use of the bread and the unleavened bread narrate the society daily life and ritual both ancient Israel and the Christianity of the first century around the Mediterranean. The Bible gives that narrative to us. I search both word and practice of the bread and the unleavened bread with the meal of the Jews, as being told by the Old Testament and the New Testament especially the early Christianity.  The point of this article is the deserve element of the Eucharist of the Church today: the bread or the unleavened bread. Above all, even though the tradition of the Church told one of those elements, we should open our mind to contextualization.

References

Adolf Adam. The Liturgical Year: Its History and Its Meaning after the Reform of the Liturgy. Terj. Matthew J. O’Connell. New York: Pueblo Publishing Company, 1981.
Borowski, Oded. Daily Life in Biblical Times. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003.
Cherry, Constance M. The Worship Architect: a Blueprint for Designing Culturally Relevant and Biblically Faithful Services. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2010.
Cobb, Peter G. “The History of Christian Year.” Dalam The Study of Liturgy, ed. Cheslyn Jones, Geoffrey Wainwright, Edward Yarnold, 403—418. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Doni Setyawan dalam Satu Harapan.”Gereja-Gereja Jawa Sepakat Menjaga Semesta.” (diakses 7 Agustus 2019).
Food Wishes. “Pita Bread - How to Make Pita Bread at Home - Grilled Flatbread.” https://www.youtube.com/watch? (diakses 3 Agustus 2019).
Garnsey, Peter. Food and Society in Classical Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Inscript, “ASV“ dan “WLC,“ https://inscript.org/(diakses 27 Mei 2019).
Inscript, “ASV”, “Tischendorf,” dan ”VULC“ (Bibia Vugata Celementina), https://inscript.org/(diakses 30 Juli 2019).
Inscript. “ASV“ dan “WLC,“ https://inscript.org/(diakses 23 September 2019).
Inscript. “NIV“ dan “Tischendorf.” https://inscript.org/ (diakses 1 Agustus 2019).
Inscript. “NIV“ dan “Tischendorf.” https://inscript.org/(diakses 20 Mei 2019).
Inscript. “NIV“ dan “Tischendorf.” https://inscript.org/(diakses 30 Juli 2019).
Inscript. “NIV“ dan “WLC.“ https://inscript.org/(diakses 27 Mei 2019).
Inscript. “NIV“, “WLC“, dan “ Tischendorf.“ https://inscript.org/(diakses 27 Mei 2019).
Inscript. “Vulc.“ https://inscript.org/(diakses 30 Mei 2019).
Jeremias, Joachim. The Eucharistic Words of Jesus. London: SCM Press & Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1990.
Korb, Scott. Life in Year One: What the World Was Like in First-Century Palestine. New York: Riverhead Books, 2010.
LaVerdiere, Eugene. The Eucharist in the New Testament and the Early Church. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1996.
Liputan 6. “Dangke, Keju Lokal Enrekang Rasa Keju Eropa.” https://www.liputan6.com/regional/read/3240459/dangke-keju-lokal-enrekang-rasa-keju-Eropa? (diakses 2 Agustus 2019),
Merdeka. “Dadiah, Yogurt Khas Minang dari Susu Kerbau.“ https://www.merdeka.com/peristiwa/dadiah-yogurt-khas-minang-dari-susu-kerbau.html (diakses 2 Agustus 2019).
Neel, Douglas E. dan Joel A. Pugh. The Food and Feasts of Jesus: The Original Mediteranean Diet, with Menus and Recipes. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2012.
Newman, Barclay M., Kamus Yunani – Indonesia. Jakarta: PT BPK Gunung Mulia, 1991. s.v. “ ἄρτος,” “ἄζυμος,” “προσεύχομαι,” “πρóθεσις,” “εἰλικρινίας,” dan “ἀληθείας.”
Osburn, William. A Hebrew and English Lexicon to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1982. S.v. מַצֹּת֙, הַמַּצּוֹת֒, dan חֶפַ.
Prent, K., J. Adisubrata, dan W.J.S Poerwadarminta, Kamus Latin – Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 1969. s.v. “puls,” “far,“ dan “hostia.”
Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Tim Penyusun. Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka, 1996.
Rachman, Rasid. “Perjamuan Awal Jemaat Korintus: Deipnon, Poterion, Symposion.” Disertasi D.Th. Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Theologi Jakarta, 2017.
Senn, Frank C. Christian Worship and Its Cultural Setting. Oregon: Fortress Press, 1983.
Published
2020-05-01